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Archive for the ‘19th century’ Category

Women Education in 19th century

A question of women education arose in order to a particular social status of a woman who performed only “female” functions (wife, mother, mistress), ceased to satisfy public needs. In the ancient world, maiden received home tutoring. Only girls from the upper classes deserved to study at the elementary schools which were given by institutions under the bless of Church. Humanists (Erasmus of Rotterdam, J.A.Komensky) substantiated a necessity for female enlightenment in their writings. Practical work was conducted in monasteries, where women learned good manners, graceful needlework, music, singing, poetry, and were brought up in the spirit of piety and obedience to how to make reading a real blessing to mothersher husband.

Especially successful was an activity of Ursulines (16th century) in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Italy. J.Pascal was a nun who worked at the monastery seminary of Port-Royal in the 17th century. She was an author of didactic issues upon the women’s education. M.Ward from England founded several Catholic institutions, where girls from families of English and French nobility were trained. English educators paid special attention to the role of a female education system.

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My Inner Victorian

I was very pleased to receive an email from a fellow Dutch history blogger Josephine. I mean, how many Dutch history bloggers are there, all in all? Not that many, I bet. Josephine runs a delightful blog called My Inner Victorian, which deals with various aspects of the nineteenth century, both historical and more practical like DIYs and recipes.

I was really delighted with the DIY section and I think many of you would be interested to, to do a little Victorian immersion while reading your Brontes and Trollopes. I loved the post on making an Ederflower face scrub. Since the blog is in Dutch I’ll give you the Google Translate link and the link to the original post as well.

 

Check out the entire DIY section for a lot of fun tips, ideas and recipes! vlierbloesem-scrub

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Did  you know the famous writer of cookbooks Mrs Beeton is largely regarded as the first ‘domestic goddess’? ‘Mrs Beeton’, as she preferred to be called (her matronly manor only served to endorse her relentless instruction) success was largely attributable to the fact her husband was a publisher, and she actually copied most recipes from the successful cooks of the day/ Sneaky!

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Much info about Mrs Beeton, and some delish recipes, I found in this new blog calle Yesterday Enchanting Today. Check it out!

 

 

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MauryMetadataThis amazing graph shows you the populair sailing routes in the 18th and 19th century. The white parts are continents. Isn’t it amazing?

 

From here: https://19thcentury.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/0f8f4-maurymetadata.png

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With today’s hygiene standards, some people are shocked to hear that it was very common in the 19th century to only bathe once a week. But it was!

So why? Well, for a multitude of reasons. First of all, it was simply tradition. From the middle ages on, it was thought that bathing too often would make you sick or sickly, and bathing once a week was enough. Some people or some cultures started to bathe more often (an example is Marie Antoinette at Versailles, who bathed every day) but this was definitely not common practise by the 19th century. 52549420dbfa3f2cb501051a._w.309_h.316_s.fit_

Also, bathing means full-on taking a bath. Many people were spot cleaning: washing face and hands every day, and maybe their feet as well. The same thing happened to clothes, by the way. It was very common to wear the same dress all week but to switch out collars and cuffs more often.

Water had to be drawn from wells for a large part, and heated on stoves. And with families as large as in the 19th century, there really was no way they could have washed themselves or their clothes more than they did! Homes with dedicated bathrooms that resemble our modern bathrooms started appearing in the late 19th century, but homes in rural areas often didn’t have plumbed bathrooms even well into the 20th.

Eww, that’s gross, you say? Well, the notion of what is clean vs what is dirty has varied a lot across the ages, and very, very few populations ever have had the economical means to apply our standards of washing everyday and changing clothes often. Currently, we’re a very clean culture, scrubbing and using lots of detergents to get everything spotless and desinfected. The 19th century was, for a large part, really more about not appearing to be muddy.

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Bathing was a pretty big deal. There’s a scene in Ingalls Wilder’s Farmer Boy where Almanzo has to take a bath and he hates it very much, because he doesn’t like just sitting there and getting wet, and also it’s cold and he has to wear clean clothes that are very stiff. So it was really a different outlook back then.

Clothes were changed about once a week (these school regulations from the 19th century show that students had to bathe on Saturdays and change their clothes once a week.)

This had to do with cleanliness but also very much with the fact that clothes were very expensive in the 19th century. Basically, clothing was vastly more expensive to produce prior to the advent of mass production, which is really only possible once the sewing machine has come into use. As late as the American Civil War, the vast majority of clothing was being hand sewn, and much of it, especially coats and trousers, were tailor made. So, people generally owned far fewer sets of clothing, but they were comparatively better quality than what most of us wear today.

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Definitely didn’t buy rights to this picture DX

As an historical example, Abraham Lincoln’s first proper suit of clothes (a frock coat, trousers, and a vest), made during the 1830s or 40s, cost $60. This is at a time when a private in the US Army made about $10 per month.

So, should you bathe more often than once a week? You shouldn’t if you lived in the 19th century, only maybe take some care to keep your hands and face clean. And change out your cuffs, if they get dirty. Otherwise, once a week is plenty.

 

Some academic sources for you:

  • Georges Vigarello, Le Propre et le Sale : L’hygiène du corps depuis le Moyen Âge, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, coll. « L’univers historique », 1987, 288 p. (ISBN 978-2-02-008634-9)
  • In english: Concepts of Cleanliness: Changing Attitudes in France since the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2008

 

 

 

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Horizontal history

I was totally blown away by this page and the amount of effort that was put into it. I don’t want to say too much to introduce it really, except to say that this page visualises historical events that took place around the same time, and that it’s AMAZING!

Go check it out: http://waitbutwhy.com/2016/01/horizontal-history.html

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Psycich-Pics-445553

The 19th century and especially the latter half of the century is known for its obsession with ghosts, spirits, morbid things, and the subconscious. In fact, talking with the dead, being inspired by them or guided by them, as well as spirit photography and ouija boards were a big fad around the 1850s.

One artist interested in spirits was Georgiana Houghton. She began producing ‘spirit’ drawings in 1859 at seances. This is what she said about the process:

“the execution of the Drawings my hand has been entirely guided by Spirits, no idea being formed in my own mind as to what was going to be produced…” She explains that the spirits were definitely those of dead people, and after having heard of such possibilities of communication as early as 1859 set out to “obtain mediumship” by holding hands with her mother at a small table for some months on end waiting for contact—which of course she says happened. Sundays worked best, “as we should then be less disturbed by evil influences”

In 1871 Houghton rented a gallery and showed her watercolour drawings in London.The exposition was met with mixed reviews, and only one painting sold.

These days though, we can appreciate her paintings for what they are: beautiful, colourful abstract paintings, full of movement. Houghton was a pioneer in paingting, choosing this abstract and free-flowing way of working instead of meticulously working out historical paintings. For the first time in 150 years, these works will be presented to the public, so don’t miss out!

Georgiana Houghton: Spirit Drawings is at the Courtauld Art Gallery from June 16 to September 11 2016. Admission £9. Open 10am – 6pm daily.

A very interesting book of spirit photography by Houghton can be viewed here: http://www.keithdelellisgallery.com/Exhibitions/Spirit/Spirit2index.html

 

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